1831 – A Proctor and 13 Constables are killed by tithe protesters at Carrickshock, Co Kilkenny.

Stair na hÉireann/History of Ireland

In Ireland, tithes were not introduced until the Synod of Cashel in 1171, and then were confined mainly to areas under Anglo-Norman control. In theory, the revenue from tithe divided into four parts: one for the upkeep of the clergyman, another for Poor Relief, a third for Church Maintenance and Education and the fourth for the Bishop. Practice did not follow theory, and by the 18th century, the tithe had become the exclusive property of the clergy. From Tudor times on, the Church of Ireland became the established church and consequently, the Tithe revenue went to the upkeep of the clergy of that church.

The roots of the Battle of Carrickshock can be traced to the implementation of the iniquitous tithe tax that came into being in the difficult harvest which followed in the immediate aftermath of the Napoleonic wars.

The opposition was a compound of religious and economic objections…

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